The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states.
Any entity that meets these criteria can be regarded as a sovereign state under international law.
The Principality of Sealand, next to the south-east coast of the UK, claims to be a independent sovereign state. Constructed in 1943 HM Fort Roughs was meant to be used as defense against German mine-laying aircraft. Defunct after WW2 it was occupied in 1967 by pirate radio broadcaster Major Roy Bates, who later proclaimed himself Major HRH Prince Roy of Sealand. The nation has several citizens, the Bates family; its own coins, flag and passport. Currently Sealand is for sale, you can have it for €750 million or shop online for a Lord or Lady of Sealand title.
Another Micronation that started out as art project ended up becoming the Republic of Kugelmugel. In 1984 it declared its independence after founder and prime minister Edwin Lipburger came into conflict with Austrian authorities over building permits for his ball shaped house. The only address of the Republic is appropriately named ‘Anitfaschismusplatz 2’ and has managed to attract 389 citizens. Until today Edwin Lipburger refuses to pay taxes.
Seasteading is a project by a small team of Silicon Valley millionaires who plan to create a permanent ‘quasi sovereign nation’ of autonomous, mobile dwellings at sea. They offer ‘a new option for global citizenship’ on a modified off-shore oil rig.
These projects remind of New Babylon by Constant Nieuwenhuys. An anti-modernist utopia in which the individual would live according to the Situationist’s spirit.